Acid gas-gas (such as sulfur oxide or nitrogen oxide) released into the atmosphere which, when combined with wet conditions, turn into acid rain.

APCD-air pollution control device.



Baghouse-equipment that utilizes fabric filters for the removal of process gas particulate matter.

Boiler– a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil.

Boiler ash– particulate matter deposited in hoppers as combustion gases change direction.

Bottom ash– incombustible material remaining after combustion is completed.

Bridging-formation of blockages in feed hoppers.



CEMS-continuous emission monitoring system.

Charge rate– quantity of waste material that is loaded into a combustion unit; usually expressed in lb/hr.

Combustion- rapid oxidation of fuel in the presence of oxygen, creating heat and light.

Combustion control- methods used to achieve maximum burnout and minimum emissions during combustion of MSW

Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS)- equipment that measures, on a continuous basis, pollutants released by the source.

Criteria air pollutants– a group of common air pollutants regulated by EPA by criteria (information on health and environmental effects of pollution).



Electrostatic attraction– particulate removal that occurs because of the difference in electrostatic charge between a particle and the filter medium.

Emission– release of pollutants into the air from a source.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)- Agency of the federal government of the United States which was created to protect human health and environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

Excess air– air volume above that required for complete combustion; usually expressed as a percentage of the stoichiometric air.



Feedstock- raw material to supply or fuel a machine or industrial process

Ferrous- containing iron

Fixed carbon– combustible, non-volatile portion of a fuel’s composition.

Flue gas– mixture of products of combustion and air constituting the exhaust of a combustion process.

Fly ash– incombustible particles carried from the combustion chamber, usually with fans.



Gasification- Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700 °C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and steam.

Gross domestic product (GDP)- Means of measuring a country’s economy.



Hazardous air pollutant (HAP)- chemical that causes serious health and environmental effects.

Heavy metal- metallic element having a high molecular weight; mercury, chromium, lead, and cadmium are examples.

Homogenous- uniform or similar in composition.

Hopper– funnel-like device used to deliver MSW by gravity feed to the furnace fuel input device.



Induced draft (ID) fan- used to create a vacuum or negative air pressure in a system or stack.

Inorganic- substance that is non-living



Leachate- liquid that results from water collecting contaminants as it trickles through waste.

Lime- calcium hydroxide used to remove acid gases.



Marcdavid Green Solutions (MDGS)- Advanced Thermal Treatment Technology (gasification).

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)- product safety information sheets prepared and made available by manufacturers and marketers of products containing toxic chemicals.

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards– based on emissions levels being achieved by lower-emitting sources in an industry.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDA)- a document that contains information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and how to work safely with the chemical product (WHMIS, 1988).

Municipal solid waste (MSW)- waste collected and treated by or for municipalities. It covers waste from households, including bulky waste, similar waste from commerce and trade, office buildings, institutions and small businesses, as well as yard and garden waste, street sweepings, the contents of litter containers, and market cleansing waste if managed as household waste. The definition excludes waste from municipal sewage networks and treatment, as well as waste from construction and demolition activities. This indicator is measured in thousand tonnes and kilograms per capita (OECD data).



Nitrogen oxides (NOx)- criteria air pollutant produced from burning fuels, including gasoline and coal; nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds to form smog and are major components of acid rain (New Hampshire Environment)

Non-ferrous- containing no iron



OJT- on the job training.

Opacity- measure of the amount of light obscured by particulate pollution in a gas stream; used as an indicator of emissions of particulates and organic products of incomplete combustion.

Organic- in a chemical sense, any compound containing carbon.



Parameter- measurable condition of a process-pressure, level, flow, etc.

Particulate- criteria air pollutant that includes dust, soot, and other bits of solid material.

Pathogen- organism that is capable of causing an infectious disease; bacterial and viruses are examples.

Permit- document used to identify the regulatory requirements that must be met by a specific organization to be able to operate.

Pollutant- unwanted chemical or other material found in the air; capable of harming health, the environment, and property.

Proximate analysis- analysis of a substance by breaking it down into its combustion components: volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, and moisture.

Pyrolysis- chemical decomposition of an organic material under conditions of high temperature and limited oxygen.



Refuse- rubbish/trash

Refuse derived fuel (RDF)- fuel made from the processing of refuse.

Routine emissions- pollutants normally found in industrial processes.



State Implementation Plan (SIP)- discusses how each state will do its job under the Clean Air Act, includes regulations to be used to clean up areas that are/have been polluted.

Slag- fly ash that has solidified on the surfaces of a boiler.

Slagging- formation of solidified fly ash.

Slurry- hydrated reagent used to react with the undesirable gas component during its removal from the process gas stream.

Smog- mixture of pollutants, principally ground-level ozone, produced by chemical reaction in the air.

Smoke- particles suspended in gases after incomplete combustion of materials.

Soot- carbon dust formed by incomplete combustion.

Source– any place or object from which pollutants are released.

Spray absorber– Spray Dryer Absorbers facilitate the removal of acidic pollutants, heavy metals, and dust from flue- and off-gases at fossil-fueled power plants, gasification plants, waste incinerators and industrial installations.


Stack- a chimney, especially one on a factory.

Stoichiometric- condition in which the theoretical volume of air required for complete combustion is present.

Syngas- A fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.



TPC Training Systems- Partial contributer to this manual.

Theoretical air- amount of air required for complete combustion of any fuel.

Tipping fee- amount charged by the waste treatment facilities for processing the waste.

Tipping floor– receiving area where solid waste is deposited for treatment at the gasification plant.

Toxic metal– metal that poses a threat to human health.

Trace metal- metal present in small concentrations.



Ultimate analysis– analysis of a substance by breaking it down into its elemental components.

Upset- condition in which system parameters are not within normal limits.



Vapor-gaseous phase of substances that are liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature and pressure.

Volatile matter– fractional weight of the fuel that will burn as a gas.



Waste heat boiler- utilizing waste gases and recovering its energy in the form of steam. Steam generation is an ideal way to recover waste heat energy from these gases in a form most easily utilized.

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